Сетевое издание
Международный студенческий научный вестник
ISSN 2409-529X

МИГРАЦИОННЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ

Шмонина М.А. 1, 2 Смирнова Е.В. 1, 2
1 МAОУ № 187 с углубленным изучением отдельных предметов
2 ФГБОУ ВПО «Нижегородский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет» (ННГАСУ)
Статья посвящена изучению современной миграционной политики в России. Авторы рассматривают некоторые особенности реализации миграционной политики России. Исследованы основные положения о беженцах и вынужденных переселенцев с территории Украины а так же трудовой миграции. На основании проведенного исследования предлагается внесение изменений в миграционное законодательство, в частности создании единого кодифицированного акта и миграционной полиции. Одним из важных направлений в решении проблем миграции является заключение международных договоров в области трудовой миграции, обеспечение их защиты на территории России, экономические права. Важными элементами миграционной политики являются создание условий для адаптации и интеграции мигрантов, защита их прав и свобод, обеспечение социальной защищенности. В настоящее время миграционная политика не предусматривает регулирование трудовых потоков.
миграция
миграционная политика
беженцы
вынужденные переселенцы
трудовая миграция
центр содействия трудовым мигрантам
федеральная миграционная служба
1. Vorobyova O.D. Migration of population: theory and state migration policy. // Problems of legal regulation of migration processes on the territory of the Russian Federation / Analytical Bulletin of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation 2003. № 9 (202) p.35.
2. Smirnova E.V., Strelkov D.Y. / Bologna process today. Eurasian Union of Scientists. 2015 №4–6 (13) pp. 140–141.
3. http://www.fms.gov.ru/about/statistics/data/details/90901. Official statistical data – Data on migration situation in the Russian Federation 2016.
4. О порядке выезда из Российской Федерации и въезда в Российскую Федерацию: Федеральный закон от 15.08.1996 г. № 114–ФЗ в ред. от 05.05.2014 г. №106–ФЗ // СЗ РФ. – 19.08.1996 г. – №34. – ст. 4029.
5. О правовом положении иностранных граждан в Российской Федерации: Федеральный закон от 25.07.2002 г. № 115– ФЗ в ред. от 21.07.2014 г. № 232–ФЗ// СЗ РФ.- 29.03.2002 г. – №30. – ст. 3032.
6. Алиджанова Н.А., Смирнова Е.В. Национальные интересы россии и культурная идентичность // Международный студенческий научный вестник. – 2017. – № 4–8.

Migration processes in Russia play an important role in socio-economic and demographic development, contribute to the active development of trade-economic, scientific-technical, investment and cultural ties with the other countries. Migration is any territorial movement of the population, associated with the crossing both external and internal boundaries of the administrative-territorial units with the aim of changing permanent residence or temporary stay in the territory for educational or employment purposes [1]. In narrow sense the legal policy in the sphere of the migration relations can be understood as a system of administrative, organizational and law-making methods and practice of its application. In the modern globalized world there is a stable rise of migration flow scale. It results on the growing world market labor force [2].

According to the data presented by UNO today more than 200 million people are external migrants while approximately 1 billion is internal migrants. Nowadays labor migration is considered to be one of the key components of the migration flows. The movement of labor resources covers all branches of world economy, out and within the national borders. Russia is getting more and more involved in the system of world labor division becoming one of the support centers for migrants and refuges. The resettlement of migrants for the permanent place of residence in the Russian Federation becomes one of the sources of the population growth of the country and its regions. According to statistics, the number of migrants came to Nizhny Novgorod in 2016 from: Uzbekistan 83076; Tadzhikistan 3832, Azerbaijan 8 869; Armenia 7362; Ukraine 3817. 40 % of labor migrants are employed in construction, 30 % in trade, 10 % in industry, 7 % in agriculture, 5 % in transport, other activities – 8 % [3]. At present, the number of refugees coming from the Ukraine to the territory of the Russian Federation has significantly increased. Based on the data presented by the Border Guard of Russia, since the beginning of 2014 about 700 thousand citizens of the Ukraine moved to the RF. Obtaining the citizenship of Russian Federation is the final the stage of rather long and complex process of consecutive changes in the legal status of foreign citizens who wish to live and work in the Russian society. But the requirements for these individuals should to be special, in order to prevent receiving a Russian citizenship to persons who have serious violations of Russian legislation. In conclusion, the authors note that global market of labor force is a sophisticated, debatable phenomenon which requires a detailed study.

Migration is any territorial movement of the population, dealing with crossing both external and internal borders administrative-territorial units for the purpose to change the permanent residence or temporary stay in the territory for the implementation of study or work under some prevailing influence of the factors it occurs.

Resettlement of the migrants on the permanent residence to the Russian Federation becomes one of the sources increasing in population of the country and its regions. Involvement of the foreign workers according to the priority vocational groups by the requirements of the Russian economy is need for its further forward development.

Access to the citizenship of the Russian Federation is the final stage of rather long and difficult process of consecutive changes of the legal status of the foreign citizens who wish to live and work in the Russian society. It should be stressed that the requirements to these persons have to be special in order not to allow receiving Russian citizenship by the persons who have major disturbance of the domestic legislation. The authors note that the given category doesn’t deserve the right of acquisition or restoration of the Russian citizenship.

Russia strengthen political, economic, cultural links with all countries of the world that in turn, leads to the increased number of the foreign citizens wishing to obtain citizenship of the Russian Federation. It seems that migration policy of the Russian Federation is in a transition period and changes depending on political system. In 2013 the FMS of Russia has accepted 27 regulation acts aimed to settle legal migration aspects.

Thus, based on the Concept of State Migration Policy of the Russian Federation for the period till 2025, the authors note that the existing migration legislation does not fully correspond to the current and future requirements of economic, social and demographic development, as well as the interests of employers and the Russian society in general. It is focused on the involvement of temporary foreign employees and doesn’t contain the measures promoting freedom of expatriation and migration, adaptation and integration of the immigrants.

Nowadays considering the period of tension in international affairs in the Ukraine and in Novorossiya the Russian Federation territories adjacent to the boarder are submerged by the migration. According to the Federal law «About a legal status of the foreign citizens in the Russian Federation»[4] citizens of the Ukraine, who came to the Russian territory from the territory of the Ukraine till 1/1/2014 have the right to be in the territory of the Russian Federation during 90 days. After this period foreign citizens are obliged to leave the territory of the Russian Federation and in can come back any time later. Since January, 2014 changes have been made to the Federal law «About an order of departure from the Russian Federation and entrance in Russian Federation»[5] the citizen who has arrived to the territory Russian Federations can stay there 90 days, after this term he is obliged to leave the territory of the Russian Federation and have the right to come back only in 90 days.

According to the frontier service of Russia about one million citizens of the Ukraine have arrived to the Russian Federation since the beginning of 2014. 143 thousand Ukrainians have addressed for granting of refugee status. The important elements of migration policy are contribute to the creation of favorable conditions for adaptation and integration of the immigrants, protection of their rights and freedoms, ensuring social security. Solution of these problems is being complicated due to the complexity of obtaining the status of the Russian citizen and the lack of regulation of the legal provisions of foreign citizens. Direct result of the absence of the state programs of adaptation and integration is isolation of the immigrants from the accepting society and the increase of the negative attitudes towards the immigrants. «A new Russia, basing on a solid foundation of its national interests, has now acquired a full-fledged role in global affairs» [6].

It is necessary to attract all concerned parties (the governments of the countries origins of migrants, migrants themselves, business corporations, non-governmental organizations etc.) to the organization of integration programs and to attract mass media resources. The Federal Migration Service (FMS) has no correct data on the number of the Chinese, the Tajiks, Kirghiz who are staying illegally on the territory of the country because of the process is being too large. Some figures vary from 12,4 to 14 million immigrants being today in the Russian Federation and according to FMS 60 % of them are ineligible foreigners.


Библиографическая ссылка

Шмонина М.А., Смирнова Е.В. МИГРАЦИОННЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ // Международный студенческий научный вестник. – 2017. – № 4-10. ;
URL: https://eduherald.ru/ru/article/view?id=17765 (дата обращения: 20.07.2024).

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