For the recent seventy years the global world has revolutionized. New states creation, local conflicts, economic crises, technological breakthrough, speed up the economic diversification process and scientific acceleration has put a new emphasis on the problem of national identity and preservation of cultural heritage of the countries. In the modern world people can interact freely due to the vast communication capabilities, such as internet and shorter traveling time. One of the main tasks of our state, along with the implementation of national projects, is the necessity of creating programs of cultural continuity, which emphasize the importance of cultural authenticity and cultural heritage to reconstruct a single spiritual universe of the nation [1; 2]. In modern Russia there has been a sharp decline in the intellectual and cultural level, the replacement of authentic cultural and spiritual values of imaginary, social and political immaturity, egoism and the Western countries are making attempts to rewrite the history of Russia, in order to diminish the significance of its achievements at the world level. A lot of Russian and foreign scientists [3; 4; 5;] noted the necessity to develop intercultural communication between the countries. The term «cultural code» describes a self-actualized human mentality – a unity of value orientations as well as fundamental features of characteristics specific to some nation . Speaking about customs and traditions of Russia it should be stressed that it is the country rich in woods and the villages and the cities used to be built along the coasts of the rivers surrounded by the woods. As a construction material wood didn`t cost much and was always available. It is possible to call the medieval times in Russia the Era of Wood. People lived in wooden houses, ate with wooden spoons from wooden plates. Children and adults slept on the wooden benches. Mills, weaving looms, sledge, and shovels were also wooden.
The clothes and valuable things were stored in wooden chests. The reason of its popularity was that wood is easy to manufacture. Using only an axe, the asters created masterpieces. Wood is a beautiful natural material. Different species of wood have their own unique pattern and even smell. Khokhloma is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft, known for its lively flower patterns, red and gold colors over the black background, and the distinctive effect on the cheap and light wooden tableware or furniture. The town of Semyonov used to be called the center of Old Belief. However, it has always been a center of Golden khokhloma. It is the world famous wood painting school with its matryoshkas (Russian wooden nesting dolls) and wood-carving. Spoon and dish making crafts originated there refer to the 17th century. Khohloma Museum is a very unique place which hosts 19th century merchant interiors [6; 7]. Today khokhloma is one of the symbols of Russia, and apart from its usage in making tableware, furniture and souvenirs, it can be found in the wider context, for example in Russian paintings.
By the Orthodox custom, marriage was possible three times, and only in case of one of the spouses’ death (tsars used also such excuse as «voluntary» leaving to the monastery). The main mission of the queen was in giving the successor of a throne. Wives and daughters of the boyars and even the queen lived in seclusion. It wasn’t allowed to be shown to them without the permission of the husband or the father to leave the house. Very few people could brag that saw a boyar`s wife or a queen face to face. The hair of the married woman had to be covered with a scarf; only not to married girls were allowed to have braids.
All Russian tsars were devout, and went to church several times a day. In palaces there were good libraries of the Russian tsars where they used to read a lot. The royal palaces were decorated with beautiful paintings. The furniture of the palaces was diverse a little from furniture of a country log hut. The children in a family started working early. Since seven years old, children were good assistants. Traditionally Russians got married early; the bride was thirteen or fourteen years old, and the groom fifteen or sixteen years old. Russian fist fighting is an ancient Russian combat sport, basically similar to modern boxing. However, it features some indigenous techniques and often fought in collective events called «Wall against Wall». The government and the Russian Orthodox Church often tried to prohibit the fights, however fist fighting remained popular until the 19th century, while in the 20th century some of the old techniques were adopted for the modern Russian martial arts. Russian people ate to satiety only on holidays. But on holidays the number of dishes even in an ordinary country family was up to for twenty. At the table it was prohibited to speak, knock loudly with a spoon, throw the food remains on a table, and leave the table before the owner. The Russian person made thrifty use of food. Only the head of the family had the right to cut bread, at a table and give a sign to a family to begin the meal.
In Russia the declared development strategy is connected with innovative economy, modernization of new technologies, economy and business, and the role of culture is seized to the keeper of heritage. At the region, regional municipalities and cultural community levels the citizens often have no understanding of how the art culture and art can change the city`s life. And meanwhile, familiarizing with art is one of the ways of intellectualization of the human`s society as acquisition of its sophisticated language, the development of skills to be have the ability of art works perception formation of selectivity and taste in the long run develop qualities, so necessary for the modern person: entrepreneur skills, ability to generate new ideas and form new practices. In our opinion, in the Russian cities the potential of art culture can be, on the one hand, helpful in the solution of relevant problem to build intellectual and creative opportunities as instruments of development, and on the other, can act as a condition of city`s society harmonization. However art culture isn’t understood as a tool of the similar tasks solution and not used as a resource for updating. The lack of political will and created public opinion about the role of culture and art turns into the missed opportunities. Perhaps, partly they are the reasons of the Russian peripheral cities` cultural crisis, as well as decrease of their tourist appeal, fast outflow of the young people to the capital of the country and even to the cities of Europe and America. In this regard culture should be considered as a resource of the cities` development.
Multi-vector nature of cultural policy is caused by substantial differences of art culture in large, average and small city settlements. For the regional center, large and partly the average cities the cultural policy acts as the instrument to increase innovations, competitiveness and investment attractiveness of the cities. The idea of stability and environmental friendliness of the settlement is relevant for the small cities; its «non-city» character is a norm and characteristic of cultural originality. The tendency of art life inequality acts as the back side of similar multi vectors. Compensation of such misbalance can be provided with the proper distribution of cultural events in the cities of the area, interaction within uniform cultural space and the cultural policy considering conditions of each geocultural locus. The museum of the region, historical and cultural monuments, archaeological and natural reserves is a special sociocultural phenomenon of material, spiritual and art culture of the region. The area is rich in museums and the statistics of museum activities considered temporary dynamics since the beginning of the 1980s. It testifies to a tendency of the increased number of the museums in the cities. In comparison to statistic data sociocultural questionnaires have revealed a tendency of decreased citizens` activity in the museum sphere. The conducted research has recorded the low level of interest to the museums in the cities and stability of this situation within the last three decades.
The museum sphere remains the least attractive segment of art culture for the citizens. The changes happening now have created the new sociocultural environment in the cities and have significantly influenced the contents and forms of the museums` activity which has been constantly developing and changing. The modern museums are becoming the centers of education and cultural exchange, platforms of communication and creative innovations. It should be noted that there are new types and forms of museums` activity promoting solidarity of city`s communities. According to the results of our research it is possible to conclude that the museum sphere is being insufficiently used as a resource of development of the cities and their art culture though possess such a great potential.
The author notes that in order to preserve cultural identity it is essential to pay special attention to the sphere of tourism. Professional education of the students of the specialty «Tourism» has a special significance, because it aims to engage the tourist centers and educational institutions, contributing to the socio-economic development of the society [8; 9; 10]. «It’s impossible to underestimate the role and importance of tourism to meet the needs of the individual and mutual influence of social and cultural relations» [11, p. 310]. Cultural tourism uses the cultural heritage of different countries as a base, however, the analysis of the concepts of professional training of future specialists for the sphere of tourism showed that in today’s programs of training specialists in the field of hospitality, there are no forms and methods of professional education through the use of cultural heritage [12; 13].
In conclusion, it should be stressed that just as sports are conducive to a harmonious development of a human body, poetry, good literature, miraculous Russian language, serious music can help in creating real harmony in a human`s mind. Literature imparts an enormous life experience. It makes a person more educated, it not only enhances one`s erudition, but also promotes deeper understanding of life. It can transport us into other times, make us wiser and open people`s hearts to us. But one has to read attentively taking one`s time, going into details and little niceties of narration avoiding page-hopping. Needless to say that it all needs time but this waste of time is indispensable. People are right saying that one learns best by reading. People need to preserve the history and traditions of their country. Mikhail Lomonosov said: «If the nation doesn`t know its past, it has no future». Cultural heritage is the object of careful study and further research.
Библиографическая ссылкаТынникова А.Н. СОХРАНЕНИЕ КУЛЬТУРНОГО НАСЛЕДИЯ РОССИИ // Международный студенческий научный вестник. – 2017. – № 4-7. ;
URL: https://eduherald.ru/ru/article/view?id=17603 (дата обращения: 22.09.2023).