Сетевое издание
Международный студенческий научный вестник
ISSN 2409-529X

ЗДАНИЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО БАНКА В НИЖНЕМ НОВГОРОДЕ

Тынникова А.Н. 1 Скрипко И.С. 2 Скрипко Е.С. 2
1 ФГБОУ ВПО Нижегородский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет (ННГАСУ)
2 ФГБОУ ВПО Нижегородская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия (НГСХА)
В статье представлены историко-культурные сведения об уникальной постройке Государственного Банка в Нижнем Новгороде. Архитектурное и градостроительное наследие Нижегородской области является уникальным отражением важнейших событий социальной и культурной истории народа, которое оказывает важное влияние на развитие градостроительной среды, предусматривающее сохранение исторической идентичности. Отмечается, что объекты культурного наследия вовлечены в процессы формирования общественного видения и восприятия локальной культуры. Их роль в процессах формирования национального и мирового культурного наследия является весьма актуальной. Авторы подчеркивают необходимость сохранения архитектурного ансамбля исторической постройки Государственного банка и привлечения внимания туристов к уникальным историческим объектам Нижнего Новгорода. Духовное наследие и культурная память являются важными составляющими национального достояния нашего государства, которые выделяют нас среди других мировых держав.
архитектурный ансамбль историко-культурное наследие внутренней интерьер шедевр передовые технологии
1. Moskaeva A.S., Kocheva E.A., Smirnova E.V. The main design features of the temples. European Journal of Natural History. 2016. № 3. 103-105 pp.
2. Bogoroditsky N.A. Credit relations at the Nizhny Novgorod fair at the first half of XIX centuries // Materials of III scientifically-practical conference «The Condition of bank system of the region and use of its potential in the economy development of the Nizhniy Novgorod region». December, 21st, 2000. N. Novgorod, 2001. pp.185-186.
3. Bogoroditsky N.A. Bank of the Nizhny Novgorod fair in XIX- the beginning of XX th centuries // Materials of I scientifically-practical conference «Problems and ways of development of bank system of region on a boundary of the twentieth century». December 25th, 1998. N. Novgorod, 1999.
4. Efimkin A.P., Kovaleva T.I., Kharlamov V.A. The main bank of Nizhny Novgorod: Pages of history (1820-2000). Editor S.F. Spitsyn: N. Novgorod, 2000. Т I. p. 12.
5. The bulletin of the Bank of Russia / Central bank of the Russian Federation. – July, 15th 2009. – № 42.
6. Смирнова Е.В. Специфика работы гида-переводчика в сборнике: Великие реки’ 2015. Труды конгресса 17-го Международного научно-промышленного форума: в 3-х томах. Нижегородский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет. 2015. С. 329-332.
7. Смирнова Е.В. Особенности обучения студентов неязыкового вуза специальности «Гид-переводчик» в системе непрерывного дополнительного образования. Приволжский научный журнал. 2014. № 4 (32). С. 310-314.
8. Tynnikova A.N., Smirnova E.V. Rozhdestvenskaya (Stroganovskaya) church in Nizhny Novgorod as an object of cultural heritage. http:// scienceforum.ru/2016/1719/23815.
9. СмирноваЕ.В., Тынникова А.Н. Духовно-нравственное воспитание студентов средствами краеведения на иностранном языке Проблемы современной науки и образования. 2015. №5 (35). С. 93-96.
10. Смирнова Е.В. Сохранение культурной памяти как важнейшая составляющая развития гражданского общества. В сборнике: Великие реки’ 2017 Труды конгресса 19-го Международного научно-промышленного форума: в 3-х томах. Нижегородский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет. 2017. С. 288.

Nizhny Novgorod is an ancient Russian city situated on the confluence of the Volga and the Oka rivers. The organization of a railway connection with Moscow in 1862 increased its commercial potential even more. Before the WWI Nizhny Novgorod was the center of an international trade. However till the second half of the XIX century the major part of the financial operations in the Nizhniy Novgorod fair was under the head of private creditors and merchants. Nizhny Novgorod merchant class was one of the richest in the country. The history of the bank is surely connected with the history and the significant role of the Nizhegorodskaya Trade Fair. It really had a huge influence all over the country due to the fact that it was the time when tremendous funds were made up.

The end of the XIXth and beginning of the XXth centuries became a sophisticated epoch in social, political and spiritual life spheres in Russia. Numerous types of the architectural monuments appeared as well as plants, factories, stations, stores, cinemas and theatres.

The ensemble of the State Bank is an outstanding example of construction in Neo-Russian style. The construction was erected to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Romanovs dynasty. To erect the building many famous architects presented their projects such as F. Shekhtel and A. Tshusev. Nevertheless, V. Pokrovsky was chosen to build the structure. His project of the bank was recognized to be the best and within two years the magnificent architectural construction, which is still admired by its originality was built. The ensemble includes the main building connected by the transition with a residential house of bank clerks, a court building and a clock tower. Many fragments of its architecture are similar to the elements of the Tower palace of the Moscow Kremlin [1].

The construction of the State Bank includes the main building connected by transition with a residential house, domestic premises, «bell and clock tower», fencing with shod gate entrances to the yard. The permanent office of the National bank in N. Novgorod was established in connection with increased value of fair trade in July, 1868. At first it was placed in private houses, in 1880 it was given its own building on Osypnaya Street, but large turnovers and the need to store the huge sums of money and stock papers forced the Council of the bank to build a special building complex . The considerable piece of land (2700 sq. sazhens) was bought from A. Nenyukova in 1910 for 150 thousand rubles at the corner of Bolshaya Pokrovskaya and Georgian streets.

In June 1911 under the supervision of the author of the project the construction began. Laying of the walls of the main building was conducted intensively and already by the June 16th, 1911 it was reported that they were risen to the level of windows of the 1st floor. The estimate cost of the construction was 398832 rubles, but during the construction the council of the Bank demanded to reduce thickness of the walls. V.A. Pokrovsky had to preserve the quality of bearing constructions. By October 25, 1911 the laying of the walls of four floors (including the basement) had been finished. The most advanced technologies of that time were used during the construction. In March, 1912 the metal design of a false ceiling (800 sq.m) executed at the Sormovsky plant was established over the operational hall on height of 13 m. The semicircular towers protruding from the northern facade are associated with the castles and the rest of the building with the Boyar palace. Arches, windows and entrances are framed by lintels as of the 17th century. The interior of the structure is really unique. Forged cooper, carved wood and the paintings are widely used. By I.Ya. Bilibin`s sketches the Moscow painters P.P. and N.P. Pashkovs began fresco wall-painting of the interiors and the huge arch of the operational hall. To furnish the room V.A. Pokrovsky executed sketches of tables, chairs, doors, carved panels. The floor was covered with a ceramic tile. The basements were durable and very spacious so they served as a depository for the empire`s gold reserve. The whole of this building is without parallel in Russian architectural history. It is the masterpiece of Pokrovsky`s rich creative mind [2; 3; 4].

Myur and Meriliz company covered the floors with a ceramic tiles and trimmed the entrance of the two floors with polychrome tiles. The memorable inscription of «the construction chronicler» has been cut out by a ligature and fixed into a facade wall. Finishing of the building had been generally over by the spring of 1913. On the 14th of May the consecration was taken place, and on the 17th of May the bank was visited by Nicholas II.

The Minister of Finance V.N. Kokovtsov in his letter to the count V.B. Frederiks expressed the following opinion about the building of National Bank in Nizhny Novgorod:

«…This building which opening is dated for this anniversary year has to serve as a majestic monument of the tercentenary of reign of the Romanovs` dynasty and in these types it is built in the Russian style of an era of the first tsars from the Romanovs House. All the internal furnishing as furniture, electric fittings, painting of the walls and ceilings and so forth, are sustained also in the Russian style to the last trifles. In general this building by its artistry, integrity of the made impression, in connection with its big sizes, has to be high on the list among the other constructions of the Russian style in the Empire».

And the architect Porkovsky managed to preserve the clarity of silhouette and proportions typical for the medieval architecture. The architectural shape of the building expresses the idea of the Russian power.

«The Clock-bell» was designed among last works in January, 1913. It is situated on Bolshaya Pokrovskaya street red line while the main building recedes from it almost in 4 meters. To look more attractive the architects designed art decoration of the facades. The thick walls with two buttresses above a gable roof with three apertures for the bells and a dial with zodiac signs can`t be missed by any visitor`s eye. To construct the Clock-bell building 1744 rubles were spent. The building was basically finished by the spring 1913 and in May 17th the Emperor Nicolay II honored its inauguration with his presence. This building is the bright sample of the retrospective show of the beginning of the XX century, and exactly the Neo-Russian style in pre-revolutionary architecture. It possesses the characteristic features of the new style which came instead of the modernist style.

During the first days of the Great October Socialist revolution the State bank in Nizhny Novgorod suspended its operations and was closed for the public. N.P. Polyansky the head of the bank was dismissed. The epoch of «military communism» was hard for the bank workers. Huge values were stored in the office pantries, but its employees did not have enough bread, grocery cards and other rations. Employees left office one by one. The men called up for military service were replaced by women. Since the first days of the war the workers of the Gorky regional office of the State Bank had joined the national movement to defend the Motherland. During the Great Patriotic War 130 Gorky bank employees left for front. According to the list of staff 295 people worked in the bank in spring 1945.

In 1998 the Central administrative board of Bank opened the Museum-exposition fund in Nizhniy Novgorod. The museum exposition became the result of the laborious work of the experts who were engaged in the research activity.

Nizhny Novgorod is famous for the original Russian traditions, rich cultural heritage and numerous historical objects of historical value. There are more than 600 unique historical, architectural and cultural monuments in the city. This fact has given the basis to include Nizhny Novgorod in the list of 100 cities of the world with huge historical and cultural value of UNESCO [5; 6; 7].

Nizhny Novgorod Society to protect monuments of history and culture attracted public attention to the problems dealing with the preservation of cultural heritage and increasing people awareness of the cultural heritage in Nizhny Novgorod [8; 9; 10].

Since the end of the XX th century cultural landscapes have been paid special attention throughout the world as a unique kind of heritage, providing interaction, interpenetration and interdependence of natural and cultural components of heritage. The problems of preservation of valuable natural and historic and cultural territorial complexes have been relevant for decades. Preservation of such territories has become an alternative to active human intervention for economic reasons in natural environment and the process of urbanization which usually neglect cultural and historical priorities. A new vision was given to the meaning of urban development as one of the most ancient and fundamental shears of people`s activity which is has a significant place in many university programs. It should be noted that urban development is a part of cultural landscape.

UNESCO pays particular attention to the events in history and culture of peoples that influenced their development and progress greatly. This organization investigates architectural and urban buildings in the area as cultural landscape phenomena, featuring outstanding characteristics of artistic and historical significance. They are historic urban and rural landscapes, monastic ensembles, churches and temples, mansion houses, garden, park and industrial complexes and so on.

To draw a conclusion, it should be stressed that architectural and urban development heritage of the region is a unique reflection of the major events in the social and cultural history of people that exerts the increased influence on the urban project design providing preservation of the historical identity. There are a great number of cultural objects having high semiotic status, which is linked with Christian religious cult and serve not just as symbols of regional culture.

It is noted that the heritage objects are involved in the processes of forming the public vision of the local culture and its role in the national and world cultural processes is very important. Globalization of modern life processes makes the problem of identification of the role of historical and architectural heritage as an integral part of culture in the formation of a new relationship between traditional and modern very urgent nowadays.


Библиографическая ссылка

Тынникова А.Н., Скрипко И.С., Скрипко Е.С. ЗДАНИЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО БАНКА В НИЖНЕМ НОВГОРОДЕ // Международный студенческий научный вестник. – 2017. – № 4-7. ;
URL: https://eduherald.ru/ru/article/view?id=17602 (дата обращения: 21.04.2024).

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