To detect the oil field it is necessary to find possible traps where it could accumulate. At first geologists go to study natural rock. In order the search to be maximally successful, it is necessary to be able to «to see underground», and it became possible due to the geophysical methods of research: magnetic properties of earth, conductivity, gravitational constituents and acoustic waves .
Certainly, the important method of research is the drilling of orientation wells. The core derived from deep wells is thoroughly studied on layers by geochemical methods (water is extracted at different areas and depths to identify gas and oil presence). To do it the wells about 7 km are drilled. The new methods allow as few holes as possible to bore, improving precision of prediction, and try to affect environment. With the development of technologies new methods providing a wider view of the surface such as an aerial photography and satellite imagery are added to the arsenal of geologists. If the oil field is found, oil wells drilling begins, the process of rock destruction, the shattered particles are taken out on the surface.
There some types of drilling: percussion boring (crumbling the rock by heavy beats, rock fragments rise to the surface by aqueous solution); rotary drilling (broken rock fragments rise to the surface through the working fluid circulating in the well). Drilling operations are divided into two types: parametric (the substance assess) and searching (it is necessary to delineate the exact place of all bends, area and depth) .